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Yet such applications are not new, and numerous contributions have been made in the last three decades. However, no survey reviewing all these contributions is available. Here we propose a survey of IA from the early nineties until the present day, describing how rendering technologies, data, sensory mapping, and interaction means have been used to build IA systems, as well as how these systems have been evaluated. The conclusions that emerge from our analysis are that: multi-sensory aspects of IA are under-exploited, the 3DUI and VR community knowledge regarding immersive interaction is not sufficiently utilised, the IA community should focus on converging towards best practices, as well as aim for real life IA systems.

We first model reading activity using the concept of reading-session and propose a new and efficient session identification. We evaluate our proposals with course authors and learners using logs from a major e-learning platform.

Interesting results were found. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach in identifying aspects and parts of a course that may prevent it from being easily read and understood, and for guiding the authors through the analysis and review tasks.

During two sessions, pairs of students used the Visu videoconferencing tool for synchronous interaction and marker setting positive, negative or free and then individual report building on the interaction using markers or not. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted on the markers put in action, on their use to reflect on action and on the reflection categories of the sentences in these reports. While they have long been deployed using specialized software or even hardware, the Web now offers a ground for them to fit into standardized languages and implementations.

However, hypervideo design also currently uses very specific models limited to a single class of documents, or very generic hypermedia models that may not appropriately express their specific features. In this article we describe such features, and we introduce CHM, an annotation-driven and component-based model to conceptualize hypervideos through a high level operational specification.

An extensible set of high level components is defined to emphasize the presentation and interaction features modeling, while lower level components offer more flexibility and customization opportunities. Two examples are provided as well as a preliminary usage study of the model and its implementation to validate our claims and proposals. More specifically, we study how trainee tutors used the affordances of Visu, an experimental web videoconferencing system, to provide negative feedback.

Visu features classical functionalities such as video and chat, and it also offers a unique marking tool that allows tutors to take time-coded notes during the online interactions for later pedagogical remediation. Our study shows that tutors mainly use verbal and chat feedback, with significant inter-individual variability, and that tutors who provide verbal feedback are more likely to use markers.

Marking takes time because of the dual task that it entails for the tutor. Idiosyncratic strategies in the use of markers are evidenced. These results clearly show the value of markers for negative feedback, signal the need for their explicitness, and also call for an evolution of the Visu interface so that tutors can better negotiate the task of online tutoring and the pedagogical stance they have to take on in their interactions with the learners.

Show abstract Our activities are becoming more and more computer-mediated. For documenting these activities, it is no longer sufficient to automatically record their traces. We present a generic semi-automatic approach for this process, which is based on rhetorical structure theory. This approach uses formal models for process input and output, and handles the process through two main phases: an automatic phase to generate a fragmented document from traces as a first description of the activity and an interactive phase to allow the user to tailor this first description according to his particular needs and choices.

We also present ActRedoc, a tool developed for text-based redocumentation, for which a first evaluation was conducted. In this paper, we propose a general framework for trace management and sharing, a generic model of synchronous collaborative activity based on the notion of interaction modes that we specialized for whiteboard sharing and text chatting, and a conceptual framework for modelling the exploitation of modelled traces, in particular for interactive visualisation on the user side.

This article extends our previous work [1] on the instrumented prototypes, by presenting our theorisation of the interactive visualisation of modelled traces. We will describe in this article the general decomposition of active reading and how it is put into practice in the Advene framework, analysing how its activities fit into the Canonical Media Processes model.

Gwendal Auffret, Yannick Prié. Show abstract The digitization of library documents and archives increasingly extends to audiovisual AV document repositories. As a consequence, new computer-aided techniques are being devised, providing opportunities for new uses of AV documents. As scholars work mainly by reading, annotating, reusing, and producing documents they are directly concerned by these changes.

The first part of this article describes AV document use in the humanities, as well as the current and future influence computers might have on evolving practices. An example of annotation is also provided. The last part is devoted to a discussion regarding potential long-term influences of digital AV indexing techniques on scholarly uses of AV documents.

Les cartes mentales sont utilisées pour aider les apprenants à organiser les contenus étudiés en classe. Ces indicateurs ont été implémentés dans un tableau de bord à destination des enseignants. Cette approche consiste à proposer une modélisation a priori des traces, et à capturer leurs diverses interprétations possibles dans des transformations reproductibles. Elle utilise des modèles formels pour les traces et les documents produits, ainsi que les principes de la théorie de la structure rhétorique RST.

Elle soutient la redocumentation à travers deux phases : une phase automatique pour générer un document texte initial et une phase interactive pour personnaliser ce document. Nous présentons notre outil de redocumentation ActRedoc, une implémentation de notre approche, ainsi que les résultats de sa première évaluation. Olivier Aubert, Yannick Prié. Temporalités et détemporalisations dans les hypervidéos in Document numérique, numéro spécial : Temps et document, vol.

Garlatti and Y. Prié, S. Yannick Prié. Show abstract Success prediction in Massive Open Online Courses MOOCs is now tackled in numerous works, but still needs new case studies to compare the solutions proposed.

We exploit various features present in the literature and test several classification models. PVA systems use algorithms that both provide intermediate results throughout their execution, and are steerable by the analyst to change the strategy used to perform the remaining computation.

Our focus is on progressive sequential pattern mining, as in the seminal work of Stolper et al. Here we go further mainly by considering the temporal nature of patterns related to their occurrences. We propose a pattern-oriented data model, a pattern analysis task model, and guidelines for designing progressive pattern mining algorithms.

They play a critical role for the visual analysis of multi-dimensional data. However their representation seems to have always be considered self evident, with oriented lines crossing at an origin, completed with labels such as ticks and names.

Such classical representation show limits when it comes 3D visualization and immersive analytic IA , mainly because orthogonal projection of points on linear axes is hard in a 3d environment, and because the user can move therefore the axes can get out of his field of view.

In this paper we propose a task-based definition of axes and coordinate systems representation, as well as a tentative design space for coordinates systems representation in immersion. We also present an exploratory user study we carried out to compare three grid-based representations of coordinate systems for multidimensional data analysis with 3D scatterplots. The use of mind maps helps students to elaborate cognitive learning strategies like creating and organizing contents.

Those indicators have been implemented and integrated in a dashboard dedicated to teachers. In this paper, we introduce a first version of the dashboard: its design, implementation, and the results of its evaluation conducted during interviews with real teachers. Reading being one of the most salient learning activities, one way of doing so is to study how learners consume courses.

We intend to support course authors e. In our server-side approach, reading sessions and indicators are calculated using web server logs. We evaluate the relevance of our proposals using logs from a major French eLearning platform. Results are promising: calculated reading sessions are theoretically more precise than other best applicable approaches, and course authors consider suggested indicators to be appropriate to courses revision.

Show abstract In a world where activities, goals and available software are rapidly changing, users must constantly adapt. In this position paper, we discuss how digital skills are different from traditional skills due to their highly dynamic na-ture, both in the tools used and the tasks to be carried out.

We advocate the needs both for interdisciplinary theory to conceptualize digital skill develop-ment, and for longitudinal, large-scale and trace-based methods to observe such phenomenon. We illustrate how digital tools could better support users in the development of skills, highlighting how traces of interaction could be leveraged within reflective and skill-sharing tools.

Video annotations are information pieces that can be anchored in the temporality of the video so as to sustain various processes ranging from active reading to rich media editing. In this position paper we study how video annotations can be used in an e-learning context - especially MOOCs - from the triple point of view of pedagogical processes, current technical platforms functionalities, and current challenges.

Our analysis is that there is still plenty of room for leveraging video annotations in MOOCs beyond simple active reading, namely live annotation, performance annotation and annotation for assignment; and that new developments are needed to accompany this evolution.

Document usages i. We first describe a conceptual framework with various levels of assistance for document reengineering: indications on reading, problem detection, reconception suggestions and automatic reconception propositions, taking our example in e-learning document management.

We then present a technical framework for usage-based document reengineering and its associated models for documents, annotations and traces representation.

During 2 sessions, students used the Visu tool for interaction and marker setting positive, negative, free and then report building on the interaction using markers or not. A quantitative descriptive analysis has been conducted on the markers used and on the reflective categories of the sentences in the reports.

Such pauses occur during the playing of the video so as to transmit more audio-descriptions. Our results show artificial pauses offer a good acceptability level as well as a low disturbing effect. We propose a modular ontology-based architecture, to provide semantics for interaction traces, observed elements and their associated objects, and we extend existing inference services, with a declarative and generic approach, in order to reason with those interaction traces.

We present the architecture of our framework and its reasoning levels, provide a proof of concept on a medical Web application, and emphasize that different kinds of actors can benefit from the supported inferences. In such context, observation and analysis of the individual and collective interaction of the trainees are critical and particularly difficult.

For that purpose, our approach consists in representing the actions of the operators and the simulation data in the form of modelled traces. These modelled traces are then transformed in order to extract higher information level. Trainers can visualized the different levels of trace to analyze the reasons, collective or individual, of successes or failure of trainees during the simulation.

In order to validate our approach, we have developed the prototype D3KODE based on the trace model and transformation that we proposed. This prototype was then evaluate according to a protocol based on a comparative method in the context of several experiment conducted with a team of experts, trainers and trainees from EDF Group. Video annotation tools offer new ways of analysing these documents, beyond the conventional transcription.

However, these tools are often dedicated to specific domains, putting constraints on the data model or interfaces that may not be convenient for alternative uses.

Moreover, most tools serve as exploratory and analysis instruments only, not proposing export formats suitable for publication. We describe in this paper a usage of the Advene software, a versatile video annotation tool that can be tailored for various kinds of analyses: users can define their own analysis structure and visualizations, and share their analyses either as structured annotations with visualization templates, or published on the Web as hypervideo documents.

We explain how users can customize the software through the definition of their own data structures and visualizations. We illustrate this adaptability through an actual usage for interview analysis. Amaury Belin, Yannick Prié. While existing theories and studies about appropriation are oriented toward the psychological or organizational dimension of this process, we propose a model to describe it through evolutions of digital artifacts and information structures.

We also present a case study demonstrating how this model helps to identify particular user operations, and related digital transformations, as a part of the appropriation process. These findings open perspectives to bridge scattered theoretical approaches of appropriation around a low-level, artifact-oriented, and objective way of describing appropriation.

Our model could also improve the way appropriation is taken into account in design, by bringing more focus on technical aspects of interactive systems.

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